MSE 120: Materials Production

Course Number: MSE 120
Course Units: 3
 
INSTRUCTOR: Staff
 

CATALOG DESCRIPTION:

Significance of materials. Occurrence of raw materials. Scientific and engineering principles relevant to materials production and processing. Methods for production of major materials.

COURSE PREREQUISITES:

Upper division standing in engineering or science. Undergraduate thermodynamics course.

PREREQUISITE KNOWLEDGE AND/OR SKILLS TEXTBOOK(S) AND/OR OTHER REQUIRED MATERIAL:

Required text: James W. Evans and Lutgard C. De Jonghe, The Production and Processing of Inorganic Materials, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2002.

COURSE OBJECTIVES:

  • Illustrate the application of thermodynamics, kinetics, process engineering and solution chemistry/electrochemistry in producing materials.
  • Outline the technology for the production and primary processing of the major structural metals, semiconductor grade silicon, glass and selected advanced.
  • Learn interrelation of energy, the environment and economics in materials processing.
  • Learn how to apply existing processing principles to process new materials, and how to modify existing materials processing routes to improve their sustainability and environmental impact.


DESIRED COURSE OUTCOMES:

  • Knowledge of the economic and environmental significance of materials and their occurrence in nature.
  • Ability to calculate the composition of a system at chemical equilibrium from thermodynamic data; knowledge of the concepts of activity, activity coefficient.
  • Knowledge of how Gibbs’ free energy of reaction determines the extent to which a reaction takes place, how to use Ellingham and predominance diagrams; the limitations of thermodynamics.
  • Knowledge of how reaction rates are defined, rate equations and how obtained, and how reaction rates depend on temperature.
  • Knowledge of the role of mass transfer in reactions and the concept of a rate controlling step.
  • Ability to classify unit operations used in producing materials, to perform material and enthalpy balances; understanding how processes/furnaces are heated and controlled.
  • Knowledge of standard electrode potentials, half-cell potentials, cell potentials, current flow, anodes and cathodes in galvanic and electrolytic cells.
  • Ability to use Faraday’s law, calculate a current efficiency and understand its significance.
  • Knowledge of high temperature, aqueous and electrochemical methods for producing major structural metals (iron, steel, aluminum, copper), silicon and glasse.
  • Understanding of binary phase diagrams applied to solidification, macrosegregation, dendritic solidification, microsegregation and constitutional undercooling.
  • Knowledge of how semiconductor grade Si is produced, Czochralski crystal growth, zone refining, CVD and sputtering.
  • Knowledge of production of other advanced materials
  • Knowledge of approaches that can be adopted to improve the environmental and energy impact of materials production.


TOPICS COVERED:

Significance of materials and brief history. Elementary geology, occurrence of elements, mineralization phenomena and ores. Mining and mineral processing (very briefly).

Reversible and irreversible changes, entropy, Gibbs’ free energy, standard states, chemical potentials and activities. Calculation of chemical equilibria from thermodynamic data. Activity coefficients. The extent to which reactions take place. Variation of Gibbs’ free energy of reaction with temperature, Ellingham and predominance diagrams. Physical equilibria. Limitations of thermodynamics.

Distinction between homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. How rates defined. Rate equations and how determined. Effect of temperature on rates. Mass transport by diffusion and convection. Mass transfer with reaction and the rate controlling step. Effect of geometry and solid product phases on reaction rates. Effect of processing parameters on productivity of reactors.

Classification of unit operations. Material and enthalpy balances. Stoichiometry. Solvent extraction as example of staged operation. Heating of unit operations and furnaces, gross available heat, critical process temperature, cost of heating, electrical heating. Elementary process control. Simulink® as a process simulation tool.

Distinction between oxide and sulfide sources of metals and alternative chemistries for processing. Roasting and calcining. Reduction reactions, the iron blast furnace, directb reduction, cast iron, production of Si, Cr and Mn by reduction. Steelmaking. Smelting and converting copper ores. Glassmaking.

Leaching chemistry and technology. Eh and Pourbaix diagrams. Standard electrode potentials, half-cells and cell potentials. Nernst equation. Current flow in galvanic and electrolytic cells. Anodes and cathodes. Batteries and corrosion (briefly). Galvanizing, cementation reactions and solution purification. Electrowinning and refining. Faraday’s law and current efficiency. Electrode kinetics. The Hall-Héroult cell.

Simple binary phase diagrams and unidirectional solidification. Macrosegregation. Dendrites, constitutional undercooling and microsegregation. Eutectics. Ingot casting versus continuous casting. Rolling operations. DC casting of aluminum.

Siemens process. Czochralski crystal growth. Zone refining. Thin and thick film technologies. CVD and chemical vapor infiltration. MBE. Plasmas and sputtering.

COURSE FORMAT:

Three hours of lecture per week.

CONTRIBUTION OF THE COURSE TO MEETING THE PROFESSIONAL COMPONENT:

The course emphasizes the application of scientific (thermodynamics, kinetics) and engineering (process engineering) concepts to the production and early stage processing of materials. Students learn to work independently through completion of homework sets; application of the computer is required in most sets. Students develop their communication skills and learn to function in teams through collaboration on a written and presented term paper. The modern materials engineering tool of this course is the computer.

RELATIONSHIP OF THE COURSE TO UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAM OBJECTIVES:

The course is intended for upper division undergraduates in the Department or for students pursuing a joint major between the Department and other engineering departments (particularly Chemical Engineering – MSE).

ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT PROGRESS TOWARD COURSE OBJECTIVES: 

  • Ten homework sets, (20%)(highest nine scores will be used)
  • One mid-term examination,(25%)
  • Team project, (25%)(including feedback for other teams at presentations)
  • Final examination,(30%)


GENERAL:

Plagiarism and academic dishonesty are not tolerated. Please see or email either the instructor or GSI with any questions about acceptable practice. Please see or email Professor Doyle about accommodation of disabilities, religious creed, temporary illness or any other special circumstances.

PERSON(S) WHO PREPARED THIS DESCRIPTION:

Professor Fiona Doyle